Satellite image processing and air pollution detection

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Environmental sensing is closely related to digital processing of observed signals and images. Detection of concentration of aerosol particles observed at ground measuring stations by satellite images is really interesting. If it come into reality, it may be one of the biggest achievement in pollution monitoring.

The air pollutants’ variable density can create many shapes of mist what can add a realistic environment to virtual scene. In order to achieve a realistic effect, we further enhance thus obtained air pollution data getting from monitor in spatial domain.  We can map the densities of air pollutants to different gray levels, and visualize them by blending those gray levels with background images.

Here are some references for the same:

1. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=859295&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D859295

2.http://uprt.vscht.cz/prochazka/ps/icassp00ap.pdf

3.http://www.isprs.org/proceedings/XXXIII/congress/part7/46_XXXIII-part7.pdf

4.http://www.srcosmos.gr/srcosmos/showpub.aspx?aa=8473

5.http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs-wm/11390.pdf


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Association of Ambient Air Pollution with Respiratory Hospitalization: A case study

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In order to evaluate the effects of acute air pollution exposures on the health of respiratory system, espiratory
hospital admissions data at community-based hospitals and air quality data were collected from 1st January, 2002 to 31st December, 2005 in L District of Jinan, Shandong province.Onthe basis of controlling for some confounding factors, such as the long-term trend of hospital admissions, ‘day of the week’ (DOW) effect, meteorological factor and so on, with semi-parametric generalized additive model (GAM) being employed, the regression model was established.

The major conclusions from this case study are:

1.  Results showed that PM10, SO2 and NO2 were all associated with increased risk of respiratory   
     hospital  admissions.

2. The best lag days for PM10, NO2 were current day (lag 0) and three days before (lag 3), while average
     moving within four days was best suitable (avg03) for SO2.


3. Relative risk for PM10 and SO2 in warm seasons were larger than in cold seasons.

4. PM10 concentration was high in the air of Jinan, which mainly came from city dusts and soil wind sand 
    dusts with weak toxicity. Those effects on respiratory health were less than those of the majority of the
    developed areas and countries.

5. Compared to the same research of the developed countries, the effect of SO2 was a little higher than  
    NO2 and PM10.

6. Female were more susceptible than the male to certain changes of pollutant level.


7. Under high pollutant concentrations, the effect of each pollutant on respiratory health became weak.

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4535343&tag=1

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Smart Environment: An important pillar of Smart Cities Mission

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Source: www.slideshare.net
What is Smart Cities Mission

As per Smart Cities Guidelines , the objective is to promote cities that provide core infrastructure and give a decent  quality  of  life  to  its  citizens, a clean and sustainable environment and application of 'Smart' Solutions.

Media reports says that government approved an allocation of Rs.2.73 lakh crore over the next 10 years for 100 Smart Cities and 500 NURM habitations for modernization of cities. 

The core axes or dimensions identified in a smart city would include:

1. Smart Governance
2. Smart Energy
3. Smart Environment
4. Smart Transportation
5. Smart IT & Communications
6. Smart Buildings
7. Smart Health Hospitals
8. Smart Education

Smart Environment

In Smart Cities Mission, Smart Environment is actually sustainable environment that termed as "a state in which the demands placed on the environment can be met without reducing its capacity to allow all people to live well, now and in the future". 

As per an article on Make In India, Smart Environment is defined for sustainable development, and three crucial dimension for this are identified as Renewable Energy, Water and Waste Water Management and Sanitation.

 Challenges for Smart Environment

Air pollution harms human health and the environment directly, and the air quality exceeds emission limits for several air pollutants that pose serious health risks: ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter (PM). The danger is local, regional, and international because the atmospheric air currents may carry air pollution emitted in one country long distances to other locations, resulting in poor air quality there.

However, there are already projects that show the potential for small, low-cost air sensing networks and demonstrate how the public could tap into this data to make a real impact on individual lives. Air Quality Egg is a community-led air quality sensing network for urban air pollution, driven by inexpensive, DIY sensors. Similarly, Airtext provides daily forecasts of air quality in London.
"Air quality monitoring is extremely important as air pollution has a direct impact on human health."
Environmental noise is also a major environmental problem. It can have physiological and psychological effects on people, interfering with basic activities such as sleep, rest, study, and communication.

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Importance of Technological Advancement in the Field of Pollution Monitoring

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Walking down most streets in any major city in India, two thing in common, the diverse culture and the pollution. One may not tolerate the other culture but easily accept the air with burning sensation, or if that is missing, at least wrappers, tea cups, polythene bags and the like thrown across the streets.


The concentrations of carbon monoxide from vehicular emissions in 1996 showed an increase of 92 percent over the values observed in 1989, consequent upon the increase in vehicular population. A recent report by World Health Organization (WHO) points to the fact that India is home to 13 of the top 20 cities for air pollution. It is because India's air has a lot of PM (particulate matter) 2.5 that is instrumental in a large number of lung ailments. The health risks of living in such a toxic environment cannot be overstated. These include the onset of asthma and cancer as well as triggers to heart attack and stroke.
 
The central and state governments are actively taking part in a major debate that is happening about the ongoing environmental issues in India. The central government's Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, Clean Ganga Mission and Delhi government's Odd Even Formula for Delhi Traffic are aimed at this. However, so long as there is no social consensus on the issues, much will remain unaccomplished.

The recent National Air Quality Index (AQI) is also a step in this direction. The index has uniform six categories - Good, Satisfactory, Moderately polluted, Poor, Very Poor, and Severe. The AQI also considers eight pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, CO, O3, NH3, and Pb) for which up to 24-hour average period National Ambient Air Quality standards are prescribed.

On the other side government's "Make in India" policy could make the pollution crisis even worse. There are no ecological or social criteria about "making" in India. On the contrary, environmental and labor laws are being diluted to attract investors, without social and ecological conditions. Without environmental safeguards, this policy will destroy the soil, uproot farmers, contribute to deforestation, and increased pollution. It does not necessarily mean blocking projects that are critical to national development but bringing in stringent guidelines for manufacturers to comply with stricter pollution standards and continuous Pollution Monitoring.

But if we look into the available pollution monitoring devices manufactured in India, these devices really lagging in technological advancements and need attention from electronics, embedded and IT geeks. 


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